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Full text of "History Of Ancient India"

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{\rtf1\ansi {\colortbl;\red0\green0\blue0;\red0\green0\blue255;\red0\green255\blue255;\red0\green255\blue0;\red255\green0\blue255;\red255\green0\blue0;\red255\green255\blue0;\red255\green255\blue255;}{\fonttbl{\f0\froman\cpg0\fcharset0 Times New Roman;}{\f1\fswiss\cpg0\fcharset0 Arial;}{\f2\froman\cpg1252\fcharset0 Times New Roman;}{\f3\fswiss\cpg1252\fcharset0 Arial;}{\f4\froman\cpg1251\fcharset204 Times New Roman;}{\f5\fswiss\cpg1251\fcharset204 Arial;}{\f6\froman\cpg1250\fcharset238 Times New Roman;}{\f7\fswiss\cpg1250\fcharset238 Arial;}{\f8\froman\cpg1257\fcharset186 Times New Roman;}{\f9\fswiss\cpg1257\fcharset186 Arial;}{\f10\froman\cpg1254\fcharset162 Times New Roman;}{\f11\fswiss\cpg1254\fcharset162 Arial;}{\f12\froman\cpg1253\fcharset161 Times New Roman;}{\f13\fswiss\cpg1253\fcharset161 Arial;}{\f14\froman\cpg1255\fcharset177 Times New Roman;}{\f15\fswiss\cpg1255\fcharset177 Arial;}}{\stylesheet {\sbasedon222\f2\fs20 Normal;}}\paperw12240\paperh15840\margl3022\margr3497\margt1440\margb720 \sectd \sbknone\pgwsxn12240\pghsxn15840\marglsxn3022\margrsxn3497\margtsxn1440\margbsxn720\cols1\colsx60 \pard \plain \cbpat8\ql\li4\fi0\ri0\sb0\sa0\tx1354 \f2\fs20{\b0\i0\cf1\charscalex100\expndtw-18\f2\cchs0\lang1033\fs21 102{\charscalex100\expndtw0\tab }\expndtw4 THE BUDDHA'S TEACHINGS}\par \pard \plain \cbpat8\ql\li0\fi0\ri0\sb187\sa0 \f2\fs20{\b0\i\cf1\charscalex86\expndtw6\f2\cchs0\lang1033\fs25 His Teachings}\par \pard \plain \cbpat8\ql\li0\fi454\ri0\sb176\sa0\sl-238\slmult0 \f2\fs20{\b0\i0\cf1\charscalex100\expndtw4\f2\cchs0\lang1033\fs24 The teachings   of   the   Buddha   were   essentially \expndtw9 simple and of a practical nature.   He did not concern \expndtw11 himself with the problems of God or the Soul, as he \expndtw7 believed   such   discussions   were of no  help in one's \expndtw4 moral   progress.   He   declared   that   everything   was \expndtw3 transitory or impermanent \i (sarvam aniccam \i0 or \i anityam), \i0\expndtw0 Like other teachers of his day, he regarded existence as an evil, but he was far more deeply stirred by the grim reality \expndtw4 of sorrow and suffering.    He, therefore, mainly addres\-sed himself to analysing its cause and finding out a way \expndtw8 leading to its cessation.    These were the Four Noble \expndtw1 Truths \i \{Cattdri-ariya-saccdm\\ \i0 which he proclaimed with \expndtw7 all his earnestness, \loch\af0\hich\af0\dbch\f2\cchs0 \'bb\hich\af0\dbch\af2\loch\f0\cchs0 ^., sorrow \i (dukkha); \i0 cause of sor\-\expndtw0 row \i (dukkha-samuddyd)',  \i0 cessation  of  sorrow   \i (dukkha-\expndtw3 mrodba); \i0 and the path leading to the cessation of sorrow \i\expndtw-2 (dukkha-nirodhagamim-pratipad).    \i0 According  to him, the \expndtw4 root  of  all   human   misery   was     'desire*     \i (tanhd\\ \i0\expndtw3 and its   annihilation  was  the   surest   means   of   end\-\expndtw11 ing unhappiness.   He held that death was no escape \expndtw7 from it, as it led to rebirth and further suffering.    The suppression of  'thirst'  \i (tanha) \i0 was  possible if people \expndtw3 followed the noble Eightfold Path, viz.,   (i) right belief, \expndtw4 (2)  right thought,   (3)  right speech,   (4)   right action, \expndtw7 0)   right means of livelihood,    (6)    right endeavour, \expndtw5 (7) right recollection, (8) right meditation.\super 1\nosupersub     The Bud\-dha called it the. Aliddle Path \i (Majjhima-maggd] \i0 as   it \expndtw6 avoided both the extremes of gross   luxury and   grim \expndtw5 austerity.   Even  those  who   were   unable   to'   retire \expndtw8 trom the concerns of life could obtain success by fol\-\expndtw6 lowing it.   The members of the \i Samgha \i0 were to strive \b\expndtw5 aner \b0 the attainment of \i Nibbana \i0 or \i Nirvana, \i0 or "extinc-}\par \pard \plain \cbpat8\ql\li529\fi0\ri0\sb194\sa0 \f2\fs20{\b\i0\cf1\charscalex226\expndtw-4\loch\af1\hich\af1\dbch\f3\cchs0\lang1033\fs15 \'a5\hich\af1\dbch\af3\loch\f1\cchs0     (0^   ffe}\par }